Monday, May 25, 2020

When Is The Last Time You Fought With Someone For Hours

When is the last time you fought with someone for hours and still did not get your way? You may have begged your teacher to let you hand in an assignment late, or tried to convince your parents to extend your curfew. You may have been disappointed when you failed to succeed in this, most likely because the lack of proper argumentation technique. Argumentation takes place all around the world in messages designed to influence other beliefs and behaviors. A rational argument adapts to the audience in an ethical manner, fulfills the requirements of presumption and burden of proof and effectively supports the claims while avoiding common fallacies. Audience analysis is one of the most important aspects of creating a respectable argument. Since†¦show more content†¦The audience plays a crucial part here, as they are active participants. It is important that all participants be knowledgeable, open minded, and respectful. Lastly, the logical perspective relies on the audience’s knowledge of logical patterns such as a cause- effect reasoning. The audience in this case, acts as disinterested and is more of a third-party judge (Rybacki 10). Regardless of perspective, the argumentation for the intended audience must abide by certain ethical standards. Argumentation is based around the conscious choices of what to say to influence the audience. â€Å"Advocates have an ethical responsibility not to deceive their audiences or other arguers by using obscure or ambiguous language, confusing patterns of organization, or ideas encumbered by nonessential information or ideas† (Rybacki 16). With this said, choosing clear and concrete language in an organized structure gives the arguer assurance that their message was not misinterpreted. Honesty is also extremely important in a successful argument, and the arguer should know their topic thoroughly to avoid false information. Moreover, stating the opposing viewpoints allows for a more effective and ethical discussion. Efficiency as an ethical standard gives the advocate the obligation to develop arguments that have the necessary rational power to make their point (Rybacki 17). KarynShow MoreRelatedBattle Of Little Bighorn : The Worst Defeat Of American History1314 Words   |  6 Pag esdefeat but the brave men who became patriots that fought for their country will forever be named for their devotion. Those men gave their lives to save future generations. The men that would give their lives for ours should be honored for their bravery. We are the people they fought to save and for that we owe them our approval. They started their journey with the march. The march on the river was long and unbarring for the brave men who fought to protect our country. On June 25, 1876 General GorgeRead MoreDescriptive Essay About Unhappy Family750 Words   |  3 Pagesdifferent. I didn’t exactly have a happy family but it was unquestionably unhappy. My parents always fought over the stupidest things, my sister hated me, and my older brother abandoned us. Not to mention, my sister tried to kill me when I was only six years old. We were playing in our shared room together. It was around 8pm and our parents were on a date night. Since our parents couldn’t find a last minute babysitter, we were left with my brother, Daniel. He didn’t actually watch us, though. HeRead More Graduation Speech Essay examples758 Words   |  4 Pagesauditorium for the last time as students of Kheradmand High. But we are! We made it through four years of high school. Now we are teetering on the edge of the rest of our lives, having to grow up and head out into the â€Å"real† world. That thought might scare some people, but we are ready. After all, if you decide that you don’t want to be a part of the real world, maybe, you can always come back to Kheradmand High and maybe they will let you be a teacher. Remember the first day you stepped foot ontoRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of The United States Essay1565 Words   |  7 Pagesyears leave after all the great tasks he has accomplished for America.    Voting has been fought for many of years. In just 1866, the Civil Rights Act granted all native Americans citizenship but not the right to vote. In 1869, Congress granted the right for African American men the right to vote. Also, in 1896 Louisiana passed the â€Å"Grandfather Clause†, basically stating if you were descendents of a slave you couldn t vote. This still hindered   primarily African Americans from voting. In 1965 thisRead MoreHow I Changed My Life985 Words   |  4 Pageschange it forever. That one person can change your life by doing something small like teaching you how to cook or they can do something even grander such as teaching you the real meaning of friendship. That one person who had a major impact on my life was my Aunt Sylvania.   She was more than an aunt to me, she was like one of my best friends. She was a very fun and loving person who could always pick you up when you’re feeling down. She was also a person who I knew I could talk to about any and everythingRead MorePersonal Narrative : My Personal Experience1497 Words   |  6 Pagesmuch, could be taken away from us in an instant. It was Monday, June 5th, 2017. I had just come back from an invitational hockey camp in Canada and I was up bright and early that morning so that I could go to Westridge and take my last two finals of the year. By the time I had gotten in the car, it was 7:20 in the morning, and I was ready to take my finals. While in the car, my mom was listening to KBS radio station. I wasn’t completely listening, but from what I could hear, the station was talkingRead MoreNegative Effects Of War1449 Words   |  6 PagesWar has many negative affects on people. Someone always suffers a consequence of war and it doesn’t end well. Not only are soldiers affected by war, but also the civilians they try to protect. In the poems; ‘Memorial Tablet’ written by Siegfried Sassoon and ‘In Flanders Fields’ written by John McCrae, we can see the first negative impact war has. Soldiers are robbed by death of the ability to live a normal life. In the book ‘Catching Falling Stars’ by Karen McCombie, and the T.V series ‘M.A.S.H’Read MoreImportance Of Self Discipline1324 Words   |  6 Pageshard work. Lack of self-control or someone who slacks off on tasks that are more beneficial for oneself, is an absence of self-discipline. This trait is something we use every day many just over look its significates. Self-discipline is used in things like when you are bored at work and decide to discovery something to work on. Self-discipline is a trait needed to succeed; helping you gain an edge in the modern world. Self-discipline can become a daily habit; when worked on this it allows the userRead MoreMy Family Is The Most Important Part Of All932 Words   |  4 PagesFinding who you are throughout a lifetime is one of the most challenging thing to discover. However, in my case, family is the most important part of all when it comes to who am I today. My past structured my life as how it is right now and I am great full for it. My identity is not completed but let me tell you at lease, who I’ve become today. My family is quite unique but I can talk about four sociological concepts that demonstrates the relation towards my identity. To begin with, my parents comeRead MorePersonal Narrative : True Happiness1108 Words   |  5 Pagestrue happiness lies in the small things in life. These small things are gesture like smiling, laughing, opening the door for someone, or even as simple as saying â€Å"Hi† to people you past of the streets. Although big situation such as winning the lottery or getting promoted may win you a lot of happiness, but it does not happen often. Small gesture happens countless of time during the day. These small gestures add up and is what ultimately makes up majority of your happiness. Ever since I realize life

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Social Media And Its Effect On Society Essay - 1799 Words

Change is a topic that everyone worries about. One of the biggest changes that our society has seen since the turn of the century has been the advancements in technology. It has brought us to a time where we can access any form of news from almost anywhere through smartphones and tablets. The access our society has to technology has impacted present day teens more than any other age group, causing an addiction to the resources available. Major social media corporations that have become available since the start of the twenty-first century have become the main cause of this addiction. Sites such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter are some of the most popular programs that have lured teens to a virtual life. In a recent study done on teens’ internet usage, it was shown that ninety four percent of teens have Facebook accounts, and the numbers continue to grow for Instagram and Twitter (Kaiser). Teens have become chronic users of social media because of the comfort that is found. They feel more comfortable in the virtual environments because they can diminish their feelings of loneliness and have more interpersonal contact (Parks). However, this comfort has surpassed the safe limits, affecting teen’s mental states. Many teens turn to social networks for positive reasons, though there are many that use social media negatively. Just as it is an easier place for lonely teens to vent, it is also an easier place for harassment due to the belief that it is much harder to endureShow MoreRelatedSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1597 Words   |  7 PagesSociety Crumbles into Smithereens One Post at a Time You are walking out of the new Star Wars movie, posting about how superb it was, when suddenly you are swooped up and thrown in the back of a vehicle. No one would have thought posting about how you were there earlier would provoke such a situation. After all, social networking is â€Å"safe† and â€Å"friendly.† Now, social media is defined as â€Å"A form of electric communication through which users create online communities to share information,† accordingRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society1711 Words   |  7 Pagesinfluence usually are not the first words you would expect to come to mind when thinking about the term â€Å"social media,† yet with a little digging you will soon realize it could be the perfect description. Social media can be defined as forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities to share information, ideas, personal messages and other content. Most often social media is understood as a p ositive concept because of the ways it has allowed us to attain cheap and easilyRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Media On Society1359 Words   |  6 PagesIn a broad sense, Social media refers to elements such as websites, television, blogs, IM, and other applications that enable users to create and share various forms of content such as messages, pictures, and information, or to be able to participate in social networking. Social media depends on web-based applications, which allow a high level of virtual interaction on various levels such as social, professional, and educational levels. Social media has had various contributions to the developmentRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1592 Words   |  7 Pagesdevelopment of vast social media networks has improved our communications and interactions. These networks, such as Facebook and Twitter, are essential to how information is shared and criticized. The Social Media Handbook defines social media as â€Å"networked information services designed to support in-depth interaction, community formation, collaborative opportunities and collaborative work† (Hunsinger, 2014 p.1). Having an account or profile on these sites is more than a social norm; it is a requirementRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society1359 Words   |  6 PagesPeople may say social media is good for you but is it really? Everyday, everywhere I always see people on social media calling people bad names, not being able to communicate face to face with each other. Social media, social media, social media†¦ oh what is has done to the world, so many students grades have dropped, criminals PROMOTE crimes. Ultimately, what is at stake here is social media will one day take over the world. People’s safety will be in danger, crimes will increase, people will getRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society1601 Words   |  7 Pagesrecent editorial titled â€Å"Hazards of Social Media† on your LinkedIn page on February 10th, 2016. It was very interesting to read your perspective on social media and its effect on society. Having an undergraduate major in Psychology at the University of Southern California and currently conducting research on social media usage at the Brain and Creativity Institute of USC, I have spent significant time researching the issue of social media.Though I agree that social media can be hazardous if not used effectivelyRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society998 Words   |  4 Pagesis bound to be a shift in social norms. As the times change, so does societ al views on acceptable values. One such possibility is the standard value accepted by mainstream society in which the way a female body is sexually portrayed in the media. It appears that society has not only accepted this standard, but has increasingly encouraged a more sexualized representation of the female body. Social media is an informational highway about what is accepted by the larger society and inferred by the individualsRead MoreThe Effects Of Social Media On Society Essay1644 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media has become prominent parts of life for many young people today. Most people engage with social media without stopping to think what the effects are on our lives, whether positive or negative. Are we as a society becoming more concerned with Facebook friends than we are with the people we interact with face-to-face in our daily lives? What will the longterm effects of today s social media use be? There are many positive aspects, but there are equally as many dangers that come withRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effect On Society1151 Words   |  5 PagesSocial Media The Workplaces’ Largest Enemy Being employed means that an individual will in most cases have coworkers and bosses; the environment shared between the employees is known as the workplace. In the time before technology, people being fired from their jobs was not an unheard of situation. The difference now is people are being terminated from their jobs because of something they posted on social media. If this was not the case, it would set a precedent that posting inappropriate or hurtfulRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society Essay1396 Words   |  6 PagesIn our modern world, the use of social media is overwhelming and second nature due to the availability. Several people all around the world possess some form of an electronic device that is capable of accessing social media, rather it be Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, Instagram, and many more. â€Å"Technology’s rampant popularization over the past decade in terms of social media has meant that texting, Facebook, and Twitter have inevitable take n over as the most efficient ways of communicating with each

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Leadership Styles And How They Influence Social Work

Leadership Styles and How They Influence Social Work Curtis E. Mitchell Colombia College Hums 345: Working with Communities Organizations Abstract Acquiring positions of authority comes with the added responsibility of making sure you are correctly and competently communicating the ideals set forth by your agency. Social workers and helpers who are in leadership positions have to understand the many facets involved in leading and guiding people. Leadership styles are often affected by cultural differences, as well as age gaps, such as we see between baby boomers versus Generation X or Millennials. Breakdowns in understanding the dynamics behind verbal and non-verbal communications can also have a significant negative impact. Given the†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Leadership is accomplished through communication – what a leader actually says and does in interaction† (Galanes Adams, 2013).. Modern society is continually changing, and leaders who are flexible, culturally sensitive, creative and display sound communication skills are crucial. Cultural Sensitivity Questions will often arise as to the effectiveness of varying leaderships styles and techniques used with differing cultures. Not all people will respond the same in certain circumstances, largely due to their cultural or ethnic sensitivities. â€Å"Evidence reflects that particular styles of and approaches to leadership may not be as successful with all cultural groups† (Aritz Walker, 2014). Leaders working with either groups or individuals face many challenges today. It’s highly likely that most groups will be made up of individuals from across many different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Leadership styles and techniques must be made inclusive of culturally sensitive issues and tendencies. Some people have been taught that being direct and straightforward is the most effective way to solve problems. Straight to the point with little or no deviations in order for all those involved to remain focused on the task at hand. While this may seem like a normal and most ef ficient approach for some, others may not be as comfortable and accepting. Some cultures mayShow MoreRelatedTransformational Leadership : John Burns1410 Words   |  6 Pagesof transformational leadership originated with the idea of â€Å"transforming leadership,† dubbed by leadership expert James Burns. Burns described transforming leadership as an interaction between leaders and followers so that they â€Å"raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Wren, 1995, p. 101). Burns’s colleague, Bernard Bass, formulated the theory of transformational leadership based on Burns’s original idea. The simple word change implies that leadership is a process ratherRead MoreEffective Leadership Styles Within The Workplace1584 Words   |  7 PagesEffective leadership styles Abstract An effective leader influences their employees in a desired manner to achieve goals and objectives. Different leadership styles can affect an organization’s effectiveness and performance. The objective of this paper is to analyze the review of literature on various leadership styles over the past years and how effective and ineffective different leadership styles are in the workplace. Introduction A leader is defined as a person with responsibility to influenceRead MoreA Motivational Theory Of Charismatic Leadership960 Words   |  4 Pagesof charismatic leadership: Envisioning, empathy, and empowerment. Journal of Leadership Organizational Studies, 13(1), 24-43. According to Choi (2006), reports that empowerment usually refers to delegating or sharing power with followers, but also to implement various managerial interventions that enable members to feel as sense of choice in initiating and regulating actions, and influencing strategy, administration, or operating outcomes at work. The concept is to influence individuals intoRead MoreLeadership And Leadership : Effective Leadership1257 Words   |  6 Pagesknowledge of how effective leadership can provide positive ways to influence others in order to accomplish goals. Managers could use trait leadership perspectives to become better leaders. As a leader, motivating your employees is key to an organizational structure. Leadership is a process which commences by following. Skill set born with or learned. As a follower one can learn and improve in their performance to be an effective leader. According to the text, leadership influence can be locatedRead MoreHow Leadership Styles Influence On An Organization s Climate Essay1019 Words   |  5 Pages The article of Leadership That Gets Results provides the six leadership styles for individuals to understand how leadership styles influence on an organization’s climate. Furthermore, the six leadership styles are consisted of the emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and social skill. Therefore, these three concepts, such as the six leadership styles, the elements of emotional intelligence, and an organization’s climate, will influence each other because theRead MoreThe Impact Of Transactional, Transformational And Laissez Faire Leadership Styles On Organisational Performance1556 Words   |  7 Page sDoes leadership make a difference to organisational performance? Leadership is commonly equated with positions of power, influence and status. However, leadership can be seen at all levels of an organisation, not just a person or group of people in a superior position. The influence of leadership on organisational performance is a common topic of interest. There are a number of leadership styles that influence an organisations performance when implemented. The type of leadership style used withinRead MoreLeadership Styles Of Team Leadership959 Words   |  4 Pagesresearch on leadership in regards to different approaches to team leadership. I wanted to share with you what I discovered. I researched three different styles of team leadership to be able to provide you with a sufficient amount of background to be confident in my recommendation for you. Leadership It is appropriate that I mention a few things about leadership prior to delving into different leadership styles. In my research, I learned that the success of a leadership style can depend onRead MoreMotivation and Leadership in Social Work Management1470 Words   |  6 PagesMotivation and leadership are very important components in social work management. Good managers should be aware not only of practical facets of that but also have a theoretical bases. That is why the work titled Motivation and Leadership in Social Work Management was written. The author of that composition is Elizabeth Fisher from Shippensburg Uniwersity in Pennsylvania. In that paper she is articulating some kinds of motivation or leadership theories and how they apply to social work. First partRead MoreCultural Assessment Tools And Organizational Culture843 Words   |  4 Pagesdocument will discuss cultural assessment tools used in assessing organizational culture and gaps within formal groups, leadership styles and techniques that influence social culture and diversity within formal workgroups, description of social culture that influence productivity within diverse workgroups and social culture and diversity of formal group members and the influence on organizational culture. The document will conclude with a summary of this discussion. Cultural Assessment Tools In theRead MoreLeaders Framework for Decision Making1215 Words   |  5 Pageshave taken quite correctly the view that there is only one constant in business, and that is change. To help guarantee the long term survival of the business, good leaders will respond to these changes. Leadership styles are often characterised by the management theory in place. This influences the framework that leaders apply to an organisations environmental change. The framework sorts the issues facing leaders into 5 contexts, defined by the nature of the relationship between cause and effect

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Social Injustices of Great Expectations free essay sample

After reading Charles Dickens’ work Great Expectations, one may agree with John H. Hagan Jr. , and his criticism The Poor Labyrinth: The Theme of Social Injustice in Dickenss Great Expectations that the theme of social injustice is prevalent throughout. The people of 19th century England were highly judgemental when it came to social classes, resulting in various occurrences of social injustices. Through the use of characterization and and a look into London’s 19th century penal system, Dickens reveals the recurring theme. The characters of Great Expectations displayed their personal opinions through dialogue and how they presented themselves. The people of higher classes in this book talked down upon people of the lower classes and thought less of them because of where they came from. However, these thoughts were not always true. â€Å"Though she called me â€Å"boy† so often and with a carelessness that was far from complimentary, she was of about my own age. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Injustices of Great Expectations or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page † (page 43) Estella doesn’t care to know Pip’s name at first because she thinks she’s higher. Her position in society causes her to believe that a person from a lower class can’t be on the same level as her. Pip is actually capable of being on the same intellectual level as Estella and treats her with respect. â€Å"The result is that he too takes on societys vices, its selfishness, ingratitude, extravagance, and pride. He, too, becomes something of an impostor like Compeyson himself, and thereby follows in the fatal footsteps of the very man who is indirectly the cause of his future misery. †(Hagan) Once Pip gets caught in between the social classes, he begins to act differently and think the way the the snobby higher class did. His new position in society causes him to treat people differently. Instead of getting to know Pip, the Havishams quickly assumed that he was nothing less than a poor working boy, but when Pip gets a taste of the higher class life, his character changes from sweet, understanding Pip, to snobby Pip who is highly judgemental. The 19th Century penal system was very corrupt and unfair. People were mostly judged based on accusations or their appearances, rather than if they committed the crime or not. â€Å" he further corrupted a man named Magwitch who had already been injured by poverty, and revealed to him how easily the law may be twisted into an instrument of class. † Compeyson knew that the penal system was solely based on appearance and and class. He was good-looking and looked as if he were a gentleman. The judge gave Compeyson half the years that Magwitch received because Magwitch ‘looked dirty’ and ‘looked like a criminal’. The penal system was ran by people in the middle class who thought they were better than the criminals that came to trial. They ruled in favor of people like them instead of listening to the full story. John H Hagan Jr. ’s criticism clearly presents the idea that social injustice is the main theme of Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations. After reading Great Expectations for themselves, readers may agree with Hagan’s opinion. The people in Great Expectations did indeed have various issues with social injustices and were focused more on class rather than character. The penal system of 19th Century England also judged based on what class a person was or what they looked like. One may personally think that the way some people were treated and thought of the Great Expectations was unruly and unnecessary.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Michelangelos Tomb of Giuliano de Medici Research Paper Example

Michelangelos Tomb of Giuliano de Medici Paper Michelangelos Tomb of Giuliano de Medici One of the most famous artists ever known since the 16th century is a man by the name of Michelangelo Buonarroti.He has composed art that is both breathtaking and unmatched in such skills as painting, sculpture, architecture and poetry.Some of his most famous works of sculpture that he composed are standing in the Medici Chapel in Florence, Italy even today.I would like to speak of a particular piece contained in the Chapel entitled Tomb of Giuliano de Medici.First I would like to say a few words concerning Michelangelos financial status for materials and his visions for the figure. According to the book entitled, Michelangelo: The Complete Sculpture, Painting, and Architecture;Michelangelo was an aristocratic artist working for the pope and had a nearly unlimited budget in the 1520s.Michelangelo also had a legendary ability to judge the quality of a block of marble; it was even said that he could see the figure imprisoned in it.(Pg.213)I think that this quote from author, William E. Wallace, shows a very interesting background in Michelangelos finances and genius.He had made numerous life-size statues with handpicked blocks of marble.Wallace also states that some experts believe Michelangelos financial backing helped contribute to the beauty of his work.I was not sure how to take that comment atfirst, but after looking at many of Michelangelos sculptures, I think the fact that he was particular about the quality of block which was used shows that he was a master that wanted to depict figures that were unequivocally beautiful, muscular, and harmonious. The Tomb of Giuliano de Medici is an example of Michelangelos mastery of both muscular figures as well as composition.The piece was worked on from 1519 through 1534.The piece contains three figures. The elevated central figure in the pie

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Affirmative Action...Why essays

Affirmative Action...Why essays In the beginning of the 1960s minorities and women were treated as though they were sub-human. They were thrown in jail for no reason, given stereotypes by the majority, and cursed upon in the streets. An uprising began to occur called the Civil Rights Movement. They called for the fair treatment of all men regardless of race. In the following years, President Lyndon B. Johnson took steps to write what is to be known today as the Civil Rights Act of 1965. With this bill came affirmative action. Affirmative action enabled minority men and women to get jobs that they would otherwise never get. To Johnson, affirmative action grew from the belief that the Constitution guarantees more than just an end to illegal. The act tried to create a just method of obtaining jobs during the racial times of the 1960s and 70s. In 1965, President Johnson used the term affirmative action to inform federal contractors to treat job-applicants and employees without regards to their race, color, religion, sex, or national origin (La Noue). In the preceding year the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed simply to make laws fair to all races, sexes, and religions; or color-blind. However, such a movement went further than merely giving equal opportunities to everyone. The United States took upon itself the responsibility to give opportunities to minorities by giving them favors such as: hiring, promotion, college admission, and the awarding of government contracts. Such policies did not express the true meaning of equal opportunities, which was introduced in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and provided for a means in which all people would receive equal treatment, but rather took its own steps into a form of discrimination. Affirmative action is hinder on Americas working world by taking away job opportunities form those peoples that are more qualified to hold that position. Imagine that you have just gra...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Article reviews for Theory and Practice of Mediation

Reviews for Theory and Practice of Mediation - Article Example But in this practice it is impossible to establish a dialogue between the clients. Finally solution focussed in brief in nature so waiting lists can be reduced. The main point of this reading was though a solution focussed model is a good way of solving the conflicts it suffers from a few drawbacks. An important strength of this piece of work is that it is well organised and it appears as if a thorough research has been done about the topic before writing and the writer has a complete knowledge and understanding about the topic he is writing about. A weakness of this article is it has failed in explaining properly the actual concept or the actual theory of solution focussed model. When the focus of the mediator is on ascertaining whether there is an underlying cause that has fueled the parties’ conflicts and the attempt to interest the parties in addressing it than it is called as a strategic style approach. Strategic style is the product of particular mediator characteristics and social circumstances. The characteristics of strategic style are – the attention to the latent causes is extremely pragmatic, the style is enacted in 3 discrete stages. Therefore it shares some similarities with variants of mediation with respect to these points – problem centered, pragmatic focus, emphasis on hidden dimensions of conflict and the notion that the mediator is the strategist who drives the problem solving process. The main point of this reading is that the strategic style focuses on the causes of conflict between the parties. An important strength of this piece of article is that it provides a comparative study between different methods and the va rious similarities and also the differences between them. An important weakness of this piece of article is that it does the ways in which this method will help in finding the causes or reasons of a particular conflict between the two parties. This theory is